Part ? Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Healthy eating and being physically active are keys to a healthy lifestyle. You may reduce your risk of many chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes (???), and certain cancers, and increase your chances of living longer. This article helps you navigate the maze of new Food Pyramids and guidelines available and helps you develop a healthy diet plan that is best for your needs.
What are the benefits of a healthy diet
A healthy diet is one of the most important ways you can maintain an active lifestyle and protect against health problems. Healthy eating increases energy, improves the way your body functions, strengthens your immune system and thwarts (??) weight gain.
A healthy diet helps you:
Meet your nutritional needs. A varied, balanced diet provides the nutrients you need to avoid nutritional deficiencies. Non-nutrients, such as fiber (??), are also necessary to a healthy diet.
Prevent and treat certain diseases. Healthful eating can prevent the risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer and heart disease. It is also helpful in treating diabetes and high blood pressure. Following a special diet can reduce symptoms, and may help you better manage an illness or condition.
Enjoy life. Food is the mainstay of many social and cultural events. Not only does it provide nutrition, it helps facilitate connections between people. Cooking fresh, healthy meals can also be an enjoyable way to spend time, either on your own or with others.
Feel energetic and manage your weight. A healthy diet can help you feel better, provide you with more energy, and help you fight stress.
What are some general guidelines for healthy eating
Don??™t skip meals. Plan your daily meals and snacks. For healthy eating, if your weight is normal, enjoy three meals and two additional snacks if you??™re hungry in between mealtimes.
Learn simple ways to prepare food. Healthy eating doesn??™t have to mean complicated eating. Keep meal preparation easy, eat more raw foods such as salads and vegetable juices, and focus on the pleasure of eating healthy food rather than the calories.
Avoid eating more sugar. If you feel tired in the afternoon, reach for fruits, veggies or a high protein snack rather than sweets, which actually rob your body of energy.
Listen to your body. Stop eating when you feel full. This will help you remain alert, relaxed and feeling your best.
How do dietary guidelines such as the USDA Food Pyramid and Harvard Health Healthy Eating Pyramid classify food groups
Grains ??” Whole grains include whole wheat, brown rice, oatmeal, whole grain barley, millet, and popcorn. Whole grains are more nutritious than refined grains which include many breads, pastas, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits.
Vegetables ??” Go for the brights: the deeper the color, the greater the concentration of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Dark green and orange vegetables, from broccoli, kale and mustard greens to butternut squash and sweet potatoes, are several excellent choices. Dried beans and peas, such as black beans, kidney beans and tofu, count in the vegetable category as well as the meat group. 100 percent vegetable juice counts, too.
Fruits ??” Fruits can be enjoyed in a number of ways: fresh, canned, frozen, dried, whole, cut-up, or pureed. Go easy on the fruit juices, though; they contain a lot of natural sugars. Besides the standards such as apples, bananas, oranges, peaches, pears and plums, try mangoes, blackberries, papayas, hybrid melons and avocados.
Milk and other diary ??” As part of a healthy diet, the USDA recommends choosing fat-free or low-fat dairy products. If you??™re lactose-intolerant, there are lactose-free and lower-lactose products, such as hard cheeses and yogurt. Harvard Health suggests a dairy or calcium supplement as an alternative to milk and cheese, which can contain a lot of saturated fat.
Meat and beans ??” This group includes fish, poultry, eggs, beans, peas, nuts and seeds, so it??™s easy to vary your healthy eating choices. Harvard Health suggests avoiding red meats because they contain a lot of saturated fat.
Oils ??” Oils are a major source of fats in your diet. Common plant and fish oils include: canola oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, safflower oil, soy bean oil, and sunflower oil. Most of the fats you eat should be polyunsaturated (PUPA) or monounsaturated (MUFA) fats.
Discretionary (?????)calories ??” The USDA Food Pyramid includes a discretionary calories classification which include ???the extras??? like solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol, or more food from any food group. Alternatively, Harvard Health suggests that alcohol is okay in moderation and that sweets should be avoided.
What is a healthy diet for women
Women require more calcium (?) and iron than men do, but what constitutes a healthy diet for a woman depends a great deal on where she is in the life cycle, the amount of exercise she gets, whether she is pregnant or lactating (??), and other lifestyle factors.
What is a healthy diet for seniors
Every year over the age of 40, our Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) (?????)slows down. This means that even if we continue to follow our current healthy eating pattern, we are likely to gain weight as we age. In general, seniors need to consume more calcium and vitamin D for bone health, eat more fiber to prevent constipation (??), cut back on salt and sugar, and make sure they get the recommended daily allowance of important vitamins and minerals. Seniors also need to increase their water intake and participate in regular physical activity. See Help guide??™s Eating Well As We Grow Older: Guide to Senior Nutrition and Creative Meal Sharing for more information.
What is a healthy diet for weight loss
Maintaining proper weight is one of the best steps you can take to prevent many health conditions and diseases. Weight loss is a complex issue, and involves emotional and mental components along with physical ones. In addition, your age and general health play important roles in what and how you should eat in order to lose weight. For more information, see Help guide??™s Healthy Weight Loss: Guide to the Popular Plans and Tips for Managing Your Weight.
1. Fiber is regarded by the author as ___________.
A) a source of nutrition B) inessential to our diet
C) a kind of non-nutrients D) a cause of malnutrition
2. It is mentioned in the passage that healthful eating can help treat ________.
A) pneumonia B) diabetes C) influenza D) insomnia
3. If your weight is normal, you should at most have _________ every day.
A) two meals B) two meals and three snacks
C) three meals D) three meals and two snacks
4. According to the author, a healthful diet should include more ________.
A) raw foods B) salty foods
C) processed foods D) low-calorie foods
5. What do we learn about breakfast cereals from the passage
A) They are more nutritious than bread.
B) They are as good as whole grain.
C) They are convenience food.
D) They are refined grains.
6. A lot of saturated fat is found in _________.
A) poultry B) red meats
C) cheese and yogurt D) lactose-free products
7. Harvard Health suggests that ________ should be avoided.
A) alcoholic drinks B) animal fats C) sweets D) oils
8. Compared with men??™s diet, women??™s diet generally needs to include more ____________.
9. If a senior person wants to have healthy bones, he should have more ___________.
10. Weight loss is regarded as a _________ because it involves emotional, mental and physical factors.